Termitomyces is a genus of basidiomycete fungi belonging to the family Lyophyllaceae. There are about 30 species in the genus. They are the food source for a subfamily of termites, the Macrotermitinae, who enjoy an obligate symbiosis with the genus similar to that between Atta ants and Attamyces mushrooms. Despite this relationship, spore transfer is still accomplished mainly by shedding from mushrooms, which protrude from the termite mounds.
These mushrooms are edible for most people, and the larger species are a popular wild food where they occur. They include the largest mushroom in the world, Termitomyces titanicus of West Africa and Zambia, whose cap reaches 1 metre (3 ft) in diameter. These fungi grow on 'combs' which are formed from the termites' excreta, dominated by tough woody fragments. Termitomyces was circumscribed by Roger Heim in 1942.
From 1955 to 1969 Arthur French  worked in Uganda (as a hobby) on the subject of fungi and termites. Some scientific literature existed, but it dealt inadequately with the relationship between mushrooms and termites, while the most edible varieties were 'termite mushrooms'. French conducted some investigations with the help of the elderly Baganda women who gathered them, and published the results.
Other termite-associating fungi that may be confused with Termitomyces
Inedible fruiting bodies of the genus Podaxis, which may also grow from termitaria. Podaxis species can be easily distinguished from those of Termitomyces in that Podaxis fruiting bodies resemble a "stalked puffball," or an unopened shaggy mane, while those of Termitomyces resemble a stereotypical mushroom or toadstool.
In China, fruiting bodies of the unrelated, but edible Macrolepiota albuminosa may also grow from termitaria. M. albuminosa was once placed within this genus as "Termitomyces albuminosa".
^Heim R. (1942). "Nouvelles études descriptives sur les agarics termitophiles d'Afrique tropicale". Archives du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (in French) 18 (6): 107–66.
^French A. (1993). "The Mushroom-Growing Termites of Uganda". Petits Propos Culinaires (44): 35–41.
See Tobias Frøslev's Termitomyces page  And an academic review of the relationship in Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa Aanenet DK al BMC Evol Biol. 2007; 7: 115.